Kōkua ʻia e ko Hilo ke ʻĪnana Hou aʻe nei nā ʻŌlelo ʻŌiwi ʻAmelika

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Na William H. Wilson a me Kaʻiu Kimura

I ka MH 1896, ua pani ʻia e ka Repubalika o Hawaiʻi ke kula kaiaʻōlelo Hawaiʻi ʻana. E hahai ana i ke ʻano o nā kula ʻōiwi o ʻAmelika. I kēia wā naʻe, ke ʻimi ʻia nei e ʻAmelika ka hoʻōla hou ʻia o nā ʻōlelo ʻŌiwi ʻAmelika ma ka hoʻohālike ʻana i ka hana a ke Kuʻikahi ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi o Hilo. He kuʻikahi ia o ka ʻAha Pūnana Leo, Nāwahīokalaniʻōpuʻu Kula Kaiaʻōlelo Hawaiʻi, Ka Haka ʻUla o Keʻelikōlani Koleke, a me ʻImiloa Kikowaena. Ma ʻOkakopa MH 2023 nei, hoʻokohu ʻia ihola e ka ʻOihana Hoʻonaʻauao pekelala ia Kuʻikahi ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi nāna e alakaʻi i ke Kikowaena Kaumokuʻāina Kākoʻo ʻŌlelo ʻŌiwi ʻAmelika.

Photo: Representatives from the National Coalition of Native American Language Schools and Programs
Representatives from the National Coalition of Native American Language Schools and Programs visited Ke Kula ʻO Nāwahīokalaniʻōpuʻu to experience Hawaii’s demonstration laboratory Hawaiian medium education school.

I ka MH 1986, ua kō ka ʻimi ʻana o ka ʻAha Pūnana Leo e hoʻopau ʻia ke kānāwai kinai ʻōlelo o Hawaiʻi. Pau ia mea, ʻimi ʻia e ia hui ka hoʻololi ʻia o nā kulekele pekelala pepehi ʻōlelo. Ua kō i ka MH 1990 ma ka puka ʻana aʻe o ke Kānāwai ʻŌlelo ʻŌiwi ʻAmelika e hoʻopalekana mai ana i nā ʻōlelo ʻŌiwi a pau o ʻAmelika, ʻo ka ʻōlelo Hawaiʻi a me kona mau kula pū kekahi.

Ma ia wā, ua kula ʻia nā keiki ʻIlikini ma ke ʻano “ʻōlelo pālua” e kapa hoʻololi iki ʻia nei he “ʻōlelo alalua.” He ʻōlelo ʻōiwi hapa kona ʻano. ʻO ko nā keiki haʻalele ʻōlelo ʻōiwi ʻana naʻe ka hopena o ia kūkohu kula. I kēia wā, ke ulu nei ka huina o nā kula ʻōiwi e hahai ana i ke kūkohu “kula kaiaʻōlelo ʻōiwi” o ke Kuʻikahi o Hilo. He kūkohu ʻōlelo ʻōiwi piha ia e hoʻopale- kana ana i ka ʻōlelo ʻŌiwi ikaika ʻana a nā keiki me ka paʻa naʻe o ka ʻōlelo Pelekānia. (E nānā i kā K. Harman.)

Eia ke ʻimi kula kaiaʻōlelo ʻŌiwi ʻia nei ma nā mokuʻāina he 17 a ma Guama kekahi. Ma nā kula o ia kelikoli Pākīpika ma mua, he koi ʻia he ʻehiku makahiki o ke aʻo ʻōlelo ʻŌiwi Chamorro. Eia naʻe, ʻaʻohe haumāna hoʻokahi i puka me ka walewaha maoli i ua ʻōlelo ʻŌiwi nei. I ka hoʻoholo ʻia ʻana e hoʻāʻo i ke kūkohu o ke Kuʻikahi o Hilo, ua ʻike ʻia ka lanakila ʻana o ka hoʻōla ʻōlelo. Aia ia papahana Chamorro ke komo nei i ke kula waena i kēia wā, a pēlā ko kekahi mau papahana holomua like o nā ʻōiwi ʻAmelika ʻē aʻe mai ʻō a ʻō o ʻAmelika ʻĀkau.

ʻO ke kula kūʻokoʻa ʻo Red Cloud ma ka makanapa Pine Ridge i Dakota Hema kahi e ʻike mōakāka ʻia ai ka neʻe ʻana o nā papahana kula ʻōiwi mai ka pepehi ʻōlelo a hiki i ka hoʻōla maoli e like me ko ke Kuʻikahi o Hilo. Hoʻokumu ʻia ʻo Red Cloud i ka MH 1888 ma ke ʻano he kula hānai ʻIlikini. I kinohi, ua hoʻopaʻi ʻia ka ʻōlelo ʻŌiwi Lakota ʻana, pāpā ʻia nā hana moʻomeheu ʻŌiwi, a kālele ʻia ke aʻo i nā ʻoihana hanalima, ʻaʻole i nā ʻike e komo kulanui ai. Ma o ia kūkohu ala, pau wale aʻela ka ʻōlelo Lakota ʻana o nā hanauna ʻōpiopio o ia wahi. Ma nā makahiki 1960 ua hoʻomaka e loli ʻo Red Cloud. Ua pani ʻia ke aʻo ʻoihana hanalima me ke aʻo ʻike pili komo kulanui a ua hoʻokumu ʻia nā papa aʻo ʻōlelo ʻŌiwi. ʻAʻole nō naʻe hoʻi i lawa ia loli no ka hoʻōla hou ʻia aku o ka ʻōlelo Lakota piha ʻana.

I ka hoʻāʻo ʻia e Maȟpíya Lúta (inoa ʻōiwi o ke kula) ke kūkohu o ke Kuʻikahi o Hilo, hoʻomaka aʻela e ola hou ka ʻōlelo Lakota i waena o nā keiki. ʻO ia mau keiki, ua ʻoi pū aku ka holomua hoʻonaʻauao ma mua o ko lākou mau mua haumāna o ia kula ʻIlikini. ʻO kekahi ʻaoʻao o ia holomua, ʻo ia ka mākau heluhelu i ʻike ʻia ka piʻi ma hope o ke kōkua ʻana o ka ʻAha Pūnana Leo me kona kiʻina aʻo heluhelu ʻŌiwi ala ʻo ka Hakalama.

ʻO nā kula ʻŌiwi i ulu aʻe nei me ke kōkua a ko ke Kuʻikahi ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi o Hilo kekahi kumu nui i nānā nui ʻia ai Ke Kuʻikahi ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi o Hilo e ke aupuni pekelala. ʻO kēia mea hou ʻo ke Kikowaena Kaumokuʻāina Kākoʻo ʻŌlelo ʻŌiwi ʻAmelika, he mea nō hoʻi ia ma ona ala e hiki aʻe ai i ke Kuʻikahi ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi o Hilo ke kōkua hou aku i ka hoʻōla hou aʻe i nā ʻōlelo ʻŌiwi i ʻanehalapohe akula ma muli o nā kulekele a hana kahiko o nā makahiki 1800 me nā 1900.